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Commanding pyramids reaching towards the gods ... piercing obelisks adorned with hieroglyphics ... caravans of camels trudging across ocher sand dunes—Egypt is a land of profound majesty and mystery, and a magnet for treasure hunters, history lovers, and adventure seekers. At its heart is the mighty Nile, a true oasis in the desert and the life-blood for Egypt’s enduring history and culture. The first settlers were drawn to its fertile banks in the tenth millennium BC, making Egypt one of the world’s oldest nation states. Over time, these primitive hunter-gatherers evolved into a formidable civilization ruled by pharaohs and marked by incredible prosperity. During their dynasties, these rulers left indelible marks on the Egyptian landscape. Tombs, temples, and monuments sprung up all along the Nile, and culture flourished, too: Writing, agriculture, and organized religion all developed under the pharaohs’ authority.

But their power was fleeting. Egypt’s prime location between Africa and Asia made it a target for conquerors, beginning with the Persians in 343 BC, and followed by the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Ottomans, and Europeans. Each of these rulers left their own mark (the Arabs, for example, transformed Egypt from a Christian country to an Islamic one). However, none of these governments could undo the pharaohs’ spell—their influence is as profound now as it was millennia ago, and relics of their reign are regularly uncovered by eager archaeologists and everyday Egyptians alike.

In recent years, Egypt’s ruling class has been in turmoil once again: the Arab Spring unseated longtime president Hosni Mubarak in 2011, and his successor, Mohamed Morsi was removed from power just two years later. Yet in spite of this unrest, there’s one thing that Egypt’s 92 million residents can be sure of—that the ancient allure of their country will always endure.

Egypt Interactive Map

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*Destinations shown on this map are approximations of exact locations

Nile River

Flowing 4,258 miles from south to north, the Nile is the longest river in the world. It spans eleven countries, including Tanzania, Uganda, and South Sudan, but it is widely regarded as the epicenter of Egypt. With an average annual precipitation of around one inch in most of the country, the Nile River is Egypt’s only real water source. It comes as no surprise that most of the country’s major cities and historic sites—from Cairo to Luxor—grew up along its fertile banks. South of Luxor, the river’s lush banks are lined by palm-fringed villages, ancient temples, and granite quarries whose stones were used to build almost all of ancient Egypt’s obelisks and temples. Near Aswan, the southernmost frontier of the ancient Egyptian empire, the shallower waters of the Nile are dotted with islands covered with exotic foliage, including two of the larges: Kitchener’s Island and Elephantine Island.

Along with Nile’s life-giving waters, the river also serves as a major transportation route, particularly when the basin and surrounding roadways flood. While it’s common to see motorized barges today, the traditional mode of transportation is the felucca. With its simple wooden hull and single crescent-shaped sail, these graceful vessels have been zigzagging along the Nile for millennia.

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Abu Simbel

Johann Luwig Burckhardt's, a modern Swiss explorer, discovered Abu Simbel in the early 1800s. Drowning in the desert sands, the only visible features of Abu Simbel that caught Burckhardt's attention were the heads on the King Ramses II statues. Over a century later, Abu Simbel faced drowning again, but this time the destruction would be far worse.

In the 1960s, the Egyptian government's plan to build the Aswan High Dam threatened the existence of Abu Simbel. Lake Nasser, a man-made lake that was created as a result of the dam's construction, would have submerged the ancient temple, but fortunately, UNESCO was able to lead a team in relocating Abu Simbel to a nearby site located above water level. Nearly 25,000 workers carefully deconstructed the temple into over 1000 blocks, each weighing around eleven tons. The blocks were transferred to a cliff where they were put back together out of harms way. The project took almost five years and millions of dollars to complete.

Simultaneously, the local Nubian people who lived here were threatened as well. Around 17,000 families were displaced as a result of the dam and relocated to another area. Meet with the Nubian locals and learn about the struggles they have faced relocating their lives and the efforts they are making to preserve their distinct culture.

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Suez Canal

For millennia, man had dreamed of building a waterway between the Asian and African continents to connect the Mediterranean to Red Sea. In fact, evidence of canals linking the Red Sea to the Nile (which empties into the Mediterranean at its northern-most point) date back as far as 1850 BC. Pharaoh after pharaoh attempted and abandoned canal projects through the centuries. Even modern-day emperor Napoleon Bonaparte contemplated canal creation in the early 19th century—but he, too, abandoned the idea when faulty survey measurements suggested that locks would be required to make up for a 30-foot elevation difference between the Mediterranean and Red Sea. It wasn’t until 1859 that construction began on the canal the world knows today.

With the blessing of Egypt’s government, French diplomat and entrepreneur Ferdinand de Lesseps established the Suez Canal Company with the express purpose of finishing the waterway once and for all. Fortunately for Lesseps, a new survey revealed that no locks would be needed to make up for differing sea levels—but that didn’t mean construction was simple. In fact, during the first few years, tens of thousands of peasants were forced to dig the canal by hand under threat of violence, and some 120,000 laborers are believed to have died in the process. Eventually, forced labor was banned, and the Suez Canal Company changed tactics, using custom-made machinery to complete the excavation. The Suez Canal officially opened on November 17, 1869, and quickly revolutionized world commerce.

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Giza Pyramid Complex

Stretching out across a tawny plateau in the Libyan Desert, the Great Pyramid Complex is one of Egypt’s greatest icons, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. At its heart is the Great Pyramid, which was built around 2560 BC by the Pharaoh Khufu (also known as Cheops). With an apex piercing 481 feet into the sky and three elaborate burial chambers tucked inside its limestone walls, the Great Pyramid is not only the largest pyramid ever constructed, but is also the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that remains today.

This impressive structure is flanked by two smaller pyramids—the Pyramid of Khafre and the Pyramid of Menkaure—built to honor Khufu’s son and grandson, respectively. These three temples are surrounded by satellite structures, including “queens” pyramids, mastaba tombs, and a workers’ village. And then of course, there is the Great Sphinx. With the body of a lion and the head of a man, the Sphinx is believed to represent the Pharaoh Khafre. Built around 2558 BC, this limestone statue is the oldest known monumental sculpture in Egypt.

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Karnak Temple Complex

The story of the Karnak Temple Complex is intertwined with that of the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes. As the city increasingly became ancient Egypt’s political and religious center, Karnak became the singular expression of royal power for each passing pharaoh.

Comprising a vast mix of temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings, Karnak is the second largest religious complex in history—only Angkor Wat in Cambodia is larger. Karnak’s walls and even its very foundations tell the stories of more than 30 pharaohs who contributed to the complex. The pharaoh Merneptah commemorated his victory over the Sea Peoples, a sea-faring clan of raiders, in hieroglyphics, while the pharaoh queen Hatshepsut reconstructed the complex to change its central focus to her whims. Rameses III had his own hieroglyphic stories carved deeper than previous rulers to ensure his legacy could not be overwritten.

While all ancient monuments in Egypt are windows into the empire’s fascinating past, Karnak is like the massive stained-glass tapestries of European cathedrals—complex, multifaceted, and endlessly arresting in its mysterious beauty.

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Valley of the Kings

Nestled on the western bank of the Nile River, the Valley of the Kings offers an intimate look into the life and opulence of Egypt’s pharaohs. The Valley of the Kings’ story is still being told—excavations are still taking place after over 200 years.

While from a distance the Valley of the Kings looks like any other river bank, the inside holds almost unsurpassed archaeological wonders. Between the 16th and eleventh centuries BC, pharaohs, nobles, and their families were entombed in this royal burial ground. The 63 tombs underneath the sand range from a hole in the ground to sprawling underground complexes—one named “KV5” has over 120 chambers. While the walls are covered in the stories of those buried there, you can also see the legacies of ancient Greek and Roman adventurers in their graffiti dating back at least to 278 BC. Though many of the tombs have been robbed over the centuries, the tomb of the eminent King Tutankhamun was found nearly completely intact, giving archaeologists an exhaustive look into the lives of ancient Egyptian royalty.

The Valley of the Kings is an encyclopedic chronicle for the Egyptian experience of death—understanding their journey to the afterlife fosters a deeper understanding of being Egyptian.

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Cairo may call to mind the mighty pyramids, the enigmatic sphinx, and other pharaonic splendors, but the capital of Egypt has come into its own as a modern metropolis in the past couple of centuries. This modernization was achieved in the 19th century when Khedive Ismail came into power. Ismail had a vision that Egypt was part of Europe and Cairo was Egypt's Paris. The romantic appeal of the City of Lights inspired some of Cairo's downtown architectural treasures and was the start of Cairo's transformation from a quaint city to an urban hub.

Now, as one of the largest cities in the world, Cairo has adopted some modern features while maintaining its ancient allure. Just outside of the city center, you'll step back into antiquity during an exploration of Giza's iconic pyramids and sprinkled throughout historic Cairo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, you'll find more ancient landmarks, including Ben Ezra Synagogue—the oldest Jewish temple in the city—and the Basilica-style Hanging Church, which is located in a Babylonian fortress dedicated to the Virgin Mary. You'll also come face to face with the glimmering gold death mask of the boy king Tutankhamun at the Egyptain Museum and explore the winding labyrinthine pathways of the medieval Khan al Khalili bazaar.

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Set along the most enchanting stretch of the Nile, Aswan is an ancient frontier town that Egyptians used as a base for incursions into Nubia and Sudan. One of Egypt’s oldest cities and most important port settlements, Aswan was considered by the ancient Egyptians to be the “gateway” to the country, and still functions as such for travelers seeking to visit its modern and ancient wonders. These include the controversial Aswan High Dam (Sadd el-ali), which forever changed the agricultural rhythms of Egypt, and the Aswan and the Philae Temples, which were moved from their previous location (where they were frequently flooded and destined to be submerged by the High Dam) and reassembled in their entirety between 1972 and 1980. The city’s Nubian Museum displays artifacts saved before Lake Nasser flooded the area behind the dam, erasing the traditional homelands of the Nubian people. Once surrounded by nature and living off the land and the Nile River in Aswan (old Nubia), most Nubians are now relegated to a desert life in villages built for them in places like Kom Ombo (new Nubia), where pockets of Nubians are working to preserve their language and culture.

Aswan is also home to the legendary Old Cataract Hotel, whose famous terrace is renowned for its incomparable views of the river at sunset with silhouettes of swallow-tailed feluccas zig-zagging across the Nile and the luxuriant palms of Elephantine Island.

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Recommended Viewing

Watch this video showcasing what makes this country so unforgettable

Indie Thread

Egypt Land of the Nile

Gain insights into American perceptions of Egypt in this nostalgic travelogue filmed n the 1960s.

Produced by National Archives and Records Administration
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Egypt: Month-by-Month

There are pros and cons to visiting a destination during any time of the year. Find out what you can expect during your ideal travel time, from weather and climate, to holidays, festivals, and more.

Egypt in January-March

Situated in the desert, Egypt’s temperatures remain relatively warm year-round, but the winter months usher in more mild weather and a chance of rain. At times, areas in the western desert even reach freezing. The cooler climate also means peak tourism season—along with Egypt’s prime business time—when hordes of people travel to the country’s top sites, potentially creating snaking lines and uncomfortable crowds.

Visiting in March allows travelers to avoid much of the winter tourist rush while still enjoying the ideal weather that makes it easier to explore during the day.

Holidays & Events

  • January 25: On this date each year, patriotic processions take place in honor of Revolution Day, when Egyptians celebrate the beginning of the 2011 uprising that ousted President Hosni Mubarak.
  • Late February: The Abu Simbel Sun Festival is held twice a year, in late February and late October, when sunlight illuminates the interior of the Abu Simbel Temple, a feature designed by King Ramses II in 1250 BC to mark the day he ascended to the throne and his birthday. Along with viewing the phenomenon, Egyptians hold music and dance performances and enjoy local foods nearby.

Watch this film to discover more about Egypt

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Egypt in April-June

Temperatures start to climb between the springtime and the start of summer in June—but travelers during this time must be aware of the Khamsin Wind, a blistering hot sandstorm that sweeps across the country for a few days in April and May. The wind can blow at up to 140 kilometers (or about 87 miles) per hour, picking up sand along the way and impeding any sightseeing adventures.

But with warmer weather, the springtime is also an excellent opportunity to sunbathe, swim, snorkel, or scuba dive in the Red Sea region.

Holidays & Events

  • Late April: Sinai Liberation Day commemorates the withdrawal of the last Israeli soldier from the Sinai Peninsula in 1982 after a 15-year occupation. The patriotic holiday features military air and water shows, concerts, and parades.
  • April/May: To mark the beginning of spring, Egyptians celebrate Sham al Nessim. On the day after the Coptic Orthodox Church’s Easter, people typically spend time outside picnicking and eating the holiday’s traditional foods: boiled colored eggs, green onions, lupin beans called tirmis, lettuce, and a salted fish called fesikh.

Must See

The Dahab coral reef in the Red Sea remains a top snorkeling location all year with its distinctive Blue Hole, colorful coral, and rich marine life. But dolphin-watching season in Egypt begins in April, making the late spring and summer months the best time to see dolphins, whether from a boat or swimming alongside them.

Watch this film to discover more about Egypt

Um Hashem's Story

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Egypt in July-September

The dry heat of the scorching summer months in Egypt borders on oppressive and drives many tourists away—though temperatures do start to drop in September. But while the heat leaves people aching for a drink and a rest, it also means the impressive ancient sites, like the Great Pyramids, are far less crowded.

As a respite from the heat, Egyptians and vacationers escape to the Red Sea region, which offers its best snorkeling and scuba diving during these summer months. Under the water lies exotic marine life, colorful coral reefs, and a world-renowned marine sinkhole called the Blue Hole.

Holidays & Events

  • July 23: Beginning the evening before, Egyptians commemorate the coup d’état that overthrew King Farouk in 1952 on Revolution Day with elaborate festivities planned by the minister of defense that feature military parades and patriotic concerts.
  • September: The Islamic New Year inaugurates the beginning of the Hijri calendar, which falls in September in 2018. During the celebration, Egypt’s streets transform into a public carnival with people of all ages dancing, singing, making music, and enjoying traditional foods and treats sold by vendors.

Must See

For centuries, the Nile River would rise and overflow following rains in the highlands and bring life and water to Egypt’s ancient civilization, who attributed the annual cycle to the gods. Even though the river no longer floods due to the building of the Aswan High Dam in 1970, the Egyptian people still recognize the river and its importance with a festive, two-week celebration in early August called Wafaa El-Nil—marked by boat and flower parades, water sports like rowing or windsurfing, and picnicking along the Nile.

Watch this film to discover more about Egypt

Egypt Land of the Nile

Gain insights into American perceptions of Egypt in this nostalgic travelogue filmed n the 1960s.

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Egypt in October-December

Egypt’s peak tourism season kicks off in December—but already in the preceding months, the summer heat relents, affording a comfortable, yet warm visit. The fall proves to be the ideal time to cruise down the Nile River because temperatures in the country’s interior have dropped, making excursions to Egypt’s main tourist sites more feasible at any point during the day.

It’s a time when the local markets come alive with bustling people and stalls stocked with produce, livestock, and other goods. But the nicer weather also means more tourists have already begun flocking to the popular locales, creating larger crowds.

Holidays & Events

  • October: Coinciding with October’s full moon, the Siyaha Festival in Gebel Dakrur is an opportunity for the members of the Siwan people to celebrate the harvest, settle their conflicts, and renew friendships. Following noon prayer each day, the people gather together for a large feast of traditional foods.
  • December: In the third month of the Islamic Calendar—December 1 in 2018—the people of Egypt celebrate the birth of the prophet Muhammad during a holiday called Mawlid. Bakeries and sweet shops sell toys made of sugar syrup for children, and the people participate in street processions with chanting, singing, and drumming.

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Our Activity Level rating system ranks adventures on a scale of 1 to 5 to help you determine if a trip is right for you. See the descriptions below for more information about the physical requirements associated with each rating.

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Travelers should be able to climb 25 stairs consecutively, plus walk at least 1-2 miles over some uneven surfaces without difficulty. Walks typically last at least 1-2 hours at a time. Altitude can range from zero to 5,000 feet.

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Travelers should be able to climb 60 stairs consecutively, plus walk at least 3 miles over some steep slopes and loose or uneven surfaces without difficulty. Walks typically last for 3 or more hours at a time. Altitude can range from 5,000 to 7,000 feet.

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Travelers should be able to climb 80 stairs consecutively, plus walk at least 4 miles over some steep slopes and loose or uneven surfaces without difficulty. Walks typically last for 4 or more hours at a time. Altitude can range from 7,000 to 9,000 feet.

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Travelers should be able to climb 100 or more stairs consecutively, plus walk at least 8 miles over some steep slopes and loose or uneven surfaces without difficulty. Walks typically last for 4 or more hours at a time. Altitude can range from 10,000 feet or more.

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