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Located in the South Pacific, Australia is the only island-continent that is also a country. From the Great Barrier Reef—the largest living organism—and the lush Daintree Rainforest to the mammoth, sacred red rock known to the "First Peoples" as Uluru, Australia features some of the most stunning backdrops on Earth. This diverse physical variety found across six states is complemented by vibrant modern cities including Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide that are juxtaposed with historic Victorian architecture and landscaping. 

When the British arrived, what they didn’t consider was the rich complexity of the original inhabitants' civilization. Australia’s "First Peoples" believe that their people have lived here since the dawn of time—the Dreamtime—when their spiritual ancestors brought the land into being with song. The Wathaurong, Arrente, Walpiri, and Anangu cultural groups speak more than 200 dialects and have varied local traditions that are still present today. Life in Australia changed dramatically with the arrival of Europeans. In the 1850s a Gold Rush attracted thousands of immigrants with the goal of becoming wealthy overnight. With them they brought disease that nearly wiped out the population of native Australians. It wasn’t until World War II compelled Australians to look beyond their traditional ties to Great Britain, forge a new alliance with the U.S., and see themselves anew as a Pacific Rim nation.

The combination of natural wonders, rich history, and diverse communities make Australia an island nation unlike anywhere in the world.

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Our Activity Level rating system ranks adventures on a scale of 1 to 5 to help you determine if a trip is right for you. See the descriptions below for more information about the physical requirements associated with each rating.

Activity Level 1:

1 2 3 4 5


Travelers should be able to climb 25 stairs consecutively, plus walk at least 1-2 miles over some uneven surfaces without difficulty. Walks typically last at least 1-2 hours at a time. Altitude can range from zero to 5,000 feet.

Activity Level 2:

1 2 3 4 5

Moderately Easy

Travelers should be able to climb 40 stairs consecutively, plus walk at least 2-3 miles over some uneven surfaces without difficulty. Walks typically last for at least 2-3 hours at a time. Altitude can range from zero to 5,000 feet.

Activity Level 3:

1 2 3 4 5


Travelers should be able to climb 60 stairs consecutively, plus walk at least 3 miles over some steep slopes and loose or uneven surfaces without difficulty. Walks typically last for 3 or more hours at a time. Altitude can range from 5,000 to 7,000 feet.

Activity Level 4:

1 2 3 4 5

Moderately Strenuous

Travelers should be able to climb 80 stairs consecutively, plus walk at least 4 miles over some steep slopes and loose or uneven surfaces without difficulty. Walks typically last for 4 or more hours at a time. Altitude can range from 7,000 to 9,000 feet.

Activity Level 5:

1 2 3 4 5


Travelers should be able to climb 100 or more stairs consecutively, plus walk at least 8 miles over some steep slopes and loose or uneven surfaces without difficulty. Walks typically last for 4 or more hours at a time. Altitude can range from 10,000 feet or more.

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Recommended Viewing

Watch this video showcasing what makes this country so unforgettable

Great Barrier Reef Produced by Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation, 2017

Follow along with shark researcher William Robbins, and discover the accelerating damage climate change has left on Australia's treasured Great Barrier Reef.

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Australia: Month-By-Month

There are pros and cons to visiting a destination during any time of the year. Find out what you can expect during your ideal travel time, from weather and climate, to holidays, festivals, and more.

Australia in January & February

While the Northern Hemisphere is experiencing cooler temperatures in January and February, Australia is enjoying warmer, summer weather in the Southern Hemisphere. Summer in Australia brings a lot of rainfall. While the rain provides a cool relief from the humidity that is common this time of year, it may hinder your Great Barrier Reef experience as a mix of rain, wind, and currents make it difficult to spot the underwater wildlife from your boat. Summer also marks the start of vacation season for most Aussies, so expect crowded beaches and coastal towns.

January and February are ideal months to visit Tasmania. Located farther south away from the equator, Tasmania's weather remains cooler with temperatures averaging around 70 degrees. Tasmania is replete with wineries and this is the perfect time to explore the idyllic vineyards and sample local varieties.  

Holidays & Events

  • January 26: Australia Day is a national holiday that marks the anniversary of the arrival of the first British fleet in Australia in 1788
  • The Australian Open Tennis Tournament, one of four major international tennis tournaments, is typically held in January 
  • Carnevale is an annual event that brings the masquerade ball festivities of the Carnevale di Venezia (Venice Carnival) to Australia
  • Late February: Dragon Boat Races spread to Australia in the 1970s when Hong Kong hosted an International Dragon Boat Festival that invited nations from all over the world to discover and participate in this sport. Hong Kong's effort to spread this tradition and important part of their culture was successful, and now these Dragon Boat Races take place all over the world, including in Australia

Must See

Australia Day celebrates the anniversary of the arrival of Captain Arthur Phillip and his British fleet in Australia. In 1788, Phillip was tasked with bringing convicts to this foreign land to build a work camp. The establishment of this settlement was difficult for Phillips, his men, and the convicts due to the climate and landscape of Australia, which the men had never experienced, but in the 19th century, an Australian settlement was finally completed.

Australia Day festivities are similar to how we celebrate fourth of July. Aussies enjoy barbecues, partake in beach-side activities, and by nightfall, fireworks illuminate the sky.

Watch this film to discover more about Australia

Australia Part 1 Created by Barbara Jensen, 22-time traveler from Sierra Vista, AZ

Join O.A.T. traveler Barbara J. as she learns about the origins of Australia and visits the bustling capital of Melbourne.

Australia in March & April

March and April welcome crisp, cool weather, which provides a nice relief from the hot summer heat and humidity. Take a pleasant stroll around one of Australia's major cities when the weather isn't too hot—from exploring Sydney's iconic cityscape to Adelaide's scenic coastal setting. Plus, as the rainy season winds down, Australia's flora flourishes. Maybe the best showcase of the lush landscape is during a visit to the Daintree Rainforest where more than 40 percent of Australia's plant species grow. 

Holidays & Events

  • Moomba Festival is an annual celebration that brings Melbourne's community together for local entertainment. This festival has held as a strong tradition in Melbourne for more than 60 years
  • Canberra Day is celebrated annually on the second Monday in March. The day celebrates the founding of Canberra, the city's natural beauty, and its cultural history with sporting events, theater performances, and more

Must See

March is the beginning of Whale Shark season when these gentle giants flock to Ningaloo Marine Park—a reef that stretches more than 160 miles. You can witness the largest known fish and shark species in the world at Ningaloo as these creatures tend to swim closer to the water's surface. The end of March through June also provide the best wildlife viewing experiences at the Great Barrier Reef due to little to no rainfall. 

Watch this film to discover more about Australia

Australia Part 1 Created by Barbara Jensen, 22-time traveler from Sierra Vista, AZ

Join O.A.T. traveler Barbara J. as she learns about the origins of Australia and visits the bustling capital of Melbourne.

Australia in May & June

A drastic cool down occurs as June 1 marks the first day of winter, which means the start of ski season in New South Wales and Victoria. Despite the cold weather, this is the best time of year to snorkel and dive over the Great Barrier Reef. Expect little to no rainfall and clear visibility, making it ideal for underwater wildlife viewing. Plus, June is the beginning of the migratory season for dwarf minke whales who travel in packs to the Great Barrier Reef in the winter. 

Holidays & Events

  • Labor Day is typically reserved for barbecues, sporting events, and marches. The holiday is known locally as "Eight Hours Day" in Tasmania and is celebrated on the second Monday in March
  • May: The Captain Cook Festival celebrates James Cook's arrival on Bustard Bay in 1770
  • The Queen's Birthday is celebrated on the second Monday in June

Must See

June is one of the best times of year to view the Great Barrier Reef's wildlife. Clear conditions and little to no rain make it easier to witness turtles gliding and fish speeding over a kaleidoscope of colorful coral dotted with constellations of starfish and groups of sea urchins.

Watch this film to discover more about Australia

Australia Part 1 Created by Barbara Jensen, 22-time traveler from Sierra Vista, AZ

Join O.A.T. traveler Barbara J. as she learns about the origins of Australia and visits the bustling capital of Melbourne.

Australia in July & August

Winter is in full swing in July and August, and while it's too cold to enjoy the beach this time of year, fewer crowds, little precipitation, and low humidity make this the perfect time to explore Australia's major cities. Stroll through Melbourne's broad boulevards to discover the city's Victorian architecture and hop on Adelaide's vintage tram to explore the city's cultural gems. Plus, if you can't enjoy the beach, take advantage of ski season, which is at its peak in July and August.

Must See

While the cool weather outside evokes a sense of holiday cheer in July and August, why not celebrate the holidays. Aussies enjoy Christmas festivities in July in addition to December. Celebrations include the Yulefest in the Blue Mountains where locals and visitors alike come together to share in the spirit of the holidays. Enjoy lively parades, peruse holiday markets, and feast on holiday favorites like turkey, ham, mince pies, and plum pudding at this beloved annual event. 

If you're interested in something a little more unique, the city of Darwin holds the Beer Can Regatta. Witness working vessels made almost entirely of beer cans at this annual event that has been held since 1974.

Watch this film to discover more about Australia

Australia Part 1 Created by Barbara Jensen, 22-time traveler from Sierra Vista, AZ

Join O.A.T. traveler Barbara J. as she learns about the origins of Australia and visits the bustling capital of Melbourne.

Australia in September & October

September and October bloom with pleasant springtime temperatures. The balmy weather is celebrated with several flower festivals—from the Cherry Blossom Festival in Cowra to tulip festivals that take place throughout the Southern Highlands. But, with better weather and vibrant flora comes larger crowds.

Spring in Australia is an exciting season. Horse racing is a big August sport as preliminary races are taking place through the season in preparation for the Melbourne Cup in November. In addition to the many horse races that take place, the National Rugby League's final games are this season. Rugby has long been a popular pastime in Australia. In the 1890s, Rugby was more of a hobby for working men, but as the sport garnered increased public interest it finally became an official sport under the New South Wales Rugby Football League at the beginning of the 20th century.

Holidays & Events

  • The Brisbane Festival is a three week celebration in September that showcases local art
  • September 1: Wattle Day; wattles are bright yellow flowers that are the national symbol of Australian patriotism 

Must See

The Australian Football League also has its final match. Australian football is a mix of American football and soccer where players use their hands to handle the ball and their feet to pass the ball.  

Another springtime attraction is the Royal Botanic Gardens, Australia's oldest botanic garden, where vibrant wildflowers are on display this season. The 158-acre garden is home to 8900 plant species and 36 pieces of art.

Watch this film to discover more about Australia

Australia Part 1 Created by Barbara Jensen, 22-time traveler from Sierra Vista, AZ

Join O.A.T. traveler Barbara J. as she learns about the origins of Australia and visits the bustling capital of Melbourne.

Australia in November & December

November and December are the last couple of months to enjoy mild temperatures before the weather heats up in January and February. Summer in Australia is not only hot and humid, but also means the beginning of monsoon season. Prepare for an abundance of rainfall and thunderstorms, but when the weather is clear, it's ideal for hiking and exploring the country's national parks where myriad wildlife can be seen in their natural habitats.  

Holidays & Events

  • The Melbourne Cup horse race takes place annually on the first Tuesday in November
  • November 11: An observance of the end of World War I 
  • December 25: Aussies tend to spend Christmas outdoors at the beach or hiking 
  • December 26: Boxing Day

Must See

Australia is home to some of the world's most wondrous creatures and natural splendors, including turtle nesting. In November through December, turtles hatch their eggs at local beaches. After the sun sets, you can catch a glimpse of this beautiful event. Plus, the Sydney Hobart Yacht Race takes place in December. The race is a tradition that began in 1945 when 9 boats raced from Sydney to Hobart. 

Watch this film to discover more about Australia

Australia Part 1 Created by Barbara Jensen, 22-time traveler from Sierra Vista, AZ

Join O.A.T. traveler Barbara J. as she learns about the origins of Australia and visits the bustling capital of Melbourne.

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Australia Interactive Map

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*Destinations shown on this map are approximations of exact locations


In 1788, English Captain Arthur Phillip anchored at the Sirius Botany Bay, bringing the first 800 convicts from Britain to form a new colony. From its inception, Sydney has been the capital of New South Wales, then a colony, and now the most populous of Australia’s six states. Sydney offers countless opportunities for discovery: watching skilled surfers navigate the waves at Bondi Beach, stopping for some local beer-battered fish wrapped in newspaper at Darling Harbour, or visiting Taronga Zoo to marvel at native wildlife including koala, red kangaroo, wombat, and platypus. Stroll along Circular Quay, to witness the iconic Sydney Opera House designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon. Completed in 1972, this unique structure made to look like white “sails” contrasts the deep blue of Sydney Harbor, located opposite Sydney Bridge, a symbolic arch that completes Sydney’s skyline and The Rocks. Here, cobblestones and old-world charm will transport you back to the once rough-and-tumble haunt of sailors from around the world. The Rocks is now a vibrant patchwork of restaurants, market stalls, and elegant period architecture.

Explore Sydney with O.A.T. on:


The Outback, home to flat, arid plains located in central Australia, is also called the Red Centre. This remote location is also considered the heart of Australia’s original inhabitants, the Aboriginal people. The word “aborigine” means “from the beginning” in Latin. Indeed, Australia’s tribal people, grouped together as aborigines, are among the oldest civilizations on Earth. They are the spiritual caretakers of iconic Uluru—or Ayers Rock—a natural phenomenon in the form of an awe-inspiring 1,142-foot-high natural sandstone monolith. The cave walls are adorned with colorful Aboriginal art depicting kangaroos, frogs, turtles, and the seasons. Uluru, the centerpiece of Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, projects red-orange hues that glow, as if lit from within as the sun goes down and twilight sets in.

Explore Uluru with O.A.T. on:

Great Barrier Reef

A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Australia’s Great Barrier Reef is comprised of 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands spanning more than 1,600 miles, making it the planet’s largest single structure made by living organisms. Most of these reefs are roughly two million years old, though sections have been dated as far back as 18 million years. Scientists estimate that 80% of Australia’s southern marine species are found nowhere else on Earth. This rich ecosystem off the coast of Queensland is home to countless species, including over 1,500 variety of fish that dart between brightly colored coral decorated with dainty sea anemone.

Explore Great Barrier Reef with O.A.T. on:


Melbourne, the state of Victoria’s culturally rich capital, is known for its broad boulevards and Victorian architecture. The city’s growth in the mid-19th century was fueled by immigrants seeking their fortunes during the Gold Rush. Highlights include St. Patrick’s Cathedral; Melbourne’s English landscaped Botanic Gardens which feature more than 10,000 plant species; and the historic Old Melbourne Gaol—where Australia’s most famous bushranger Ned Kelly met his fate in 1880. Melbourne is also home to the largest open-air market in the southern hemisphere, the Queen Victoria Market. Built in 1878, the market was once known as a thriving center for black market goods, and currently boasts an excellent assortment of fresh produce, meats, and seafood, as well as clothing, jewelry, and handcrafts. Melbourne’s trendy cafés, theaters, and lively music and art scene attract multicultural residents—which include more international students per capita than any other city in the world.

Melbourne: Australia's Sporting Capital Courtesy CNN

Tour Melbourne's parks, galleries, and bars with an Australian football player and a local jewelry designer.

Explore Melbourne with O.A.T. on:

Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park, Tasmania

Tasmania's Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park is one of the most pristine corners of Australia. Because it is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Area, so its rich ecosystem will remain protected. The park is home to many of Australia’s renowned wildlife including wallabies, wombats, dingoes, echidna, and the illusive Tasmanian Devil. Trails through giant hardwood forests, along glacial lakes and gorges offer some of the finest “bushwalking” in the world. Spectacular views from rugged Cradle Mountain provide postcard views.

Explore Cradle Mountain National Park with O.A.T. on:

Daintree Rainforest

The thick, pre-historic vegetation of Queensland’s Daintree Rainforest dates back 100 million years. This UNESCO World Heritage-protected region and ecological wonderland is home to many forms of life—which includes new species being discovered by scientists. Its diverse flora includes ancient vines, ferns, and mangrove trees. Here, you’ll find a quarter of Australia’s reptiles—such as water dragons, a fifth of its birds including cassowary—a tall flightless bird, and a third of its marsupials like tree kangaroos, and 54 native frog species—many of which are only found in this complex environment.

Explore Daintree Rainforest with O.A.T. on:

Featured Reading

Immerse yourself in Australia with this selection of articles, recipes, and more


Learn how to make a traditional Australian Pavlova with this recipe.


Take a side-by-side look at the origins, spiritual beliefs, and traditions of Australia’s indigenous people and New Zealand’s Maori.


Discover the largest living organism’s wondrous qualities and, unfortunately, its bleak future.


Learn about Australia’s aboriginal groups, including their shared spiritual beliefs, like “Dreamtime."


Try a new take on barbecue the Australian way. Check out this recipe for barbecued lamb chops with a Shiraz reduction.

Recipe: Australian Pavlova

How to Make Australian Pavlova Produced by Epicurious

Bring the flavors of Australia into your home with this recipe for traditional pavlova, a meringue-style dessert.


Courtesy of Epicurious


For meringues:

  • 3 egg whites
  • 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons sugar
  • 1/2 teaspoon cornstarch

For filling:

  • 1 1/2 cups pastry cream
  • 1/2 cup heavy cream

To serve:

  • 1 cup apricot glaze
  • 3 to 4 cups assorted seasonal fruit, such as sliced peaches, apricots, or plums; berries; or grapes
  • 2 cups raspberry sauce
  • 1/2 cup powdered sugar


To make the meringues:

  1. Preheat oven to 150°F. Line 2 large baking sheets with parchment paper. Using a 3-inch-diameter bowl or ring mold as guide, trace 5 circles on each sheet. Turn paper over so markings are on bottom.
  2. In large metal bowl, whisk egg whites by hand until frothy. Gradually whisk in sugar, then cornstarch. Attach candy thermometer to bowl and set over saucepan of simmering water. Continue whisking until thermometer registers 130°F. Remove bowl from heat and, using electric mixer, beat mixture at moderately high speed until mixture cools and holds stiff peaks, 5 to 7 minutes. Transfer to pastry bag fitted with large star tip.
  3. Starting at center and working in spiral outward, pipe meringue onto 1 traced circle. Pipe second layer in ring around edge to form outer wall. Fill remaining circles in same manner.
  4. Bake meringues until dry on outside but still soft inside, about 3 hours. Transfer pan to a cooling rack and cool 5 minutes. Peel meringues from parchment and cool completely on rack. (Meringues can be made ahead and stored in airtight container in a dry, cool place up to 2 weeks or frozen in airtight container up to 3 months.)

To make the filling:

  1. Using an electric mixer, beat cream until stiff peaks form.
  2. In large bowl, whisk pastry cream until smooth. Whisk in 1/3 of whipped cream to lighten, then fold in remaining whipped cream.

Assemble and serve:

  1. In a small saucepan over moderate heat, bring apricot glaze to boil, stirring occasionally. Keep warm.
  2. Transfer each meringue to a serving plate and fill with 3 tablespoons of the pastry cream mixture. Mound fruit on top of the cream. Brush fruit with glaze. Spoon raspberry sauce alongside of the plate, dust Pavlovas with powdered sugar, and serve immediately.

Time: Approximately 4 hours

Servings: 10

Learn how to make a traditional Australian Pavlova with this recipe.

Because the South Pacific Isn’t Just for Nature Lovers

Take a side-by-side look at the "First Peoples of Australia" and Maori culture

for O.A.T.

The natural beauty of Australia and New Zealand makes these faraway islands fascinating places to explore. But beyond their stunning environs, their distinct and deep-rooted cultures are what bring these destinations to life. So let’s uncover the South Pacific’s spiritual side by juxtaposing the ancestry of the "First Peoples of Australia" with New Zealand’s Maori heritage.


The First Peoples of Australia
Dating back tens of thousands of years, the "First Peoples" came to Australia by land and have evolved into as many as 400 groups speaking more than 250 distinct languages.

Arriving in the 13th century, the Maori came to New Zealand by boat from across Polynesia, and over time, have unified into a single ethnic identity with a shared language.


The First Peoples of Australia
Ancestral beings moved through the world in a state of Dreaming (also called Dreamtime), calling things into being and naming what they saw as they went. The paths these creators took are known as songlines.


Ranginui, the Sky Father, and Papatuanuku, the Earth Mother, were too close, and their children felt confined, so their sons (representing natural features like mountains and forests) forcibly split heaven and earth to yield the world as we know it.


The First Peoples of Australia
Souls are the province of humans alone, and represent two natures: who we make ourselves to be, and who the ancestral beings create in us. Animals and objects do not have souls, though they are created by beings that do.

All things contain mana, a soul-like force, and are bound by mauri, the energy connecting every element of creation. The resulting bond between humans and the world around us is core to Maori life.


The First Peoples of Australia
On rock paintings and textile art, a serpent outline in multiple colors (sometimes boasting other animal parts) is the Rainbow Snake, a mythical creature that helped create much of the land during the Dreaming period. It’s considered the wellspring of fertility, growth, and hope.

The spiral found in Maori jewelry or in tattoo-like ta moko patterns is a koru (loop), which represents a curled fern frond. In one direction, the spiral implies going back to the beginning; in the other direction, it unfurls, suggesting a new start and rejuvenation.


The First Peoples of Australia
Body painting using a combination of clay dust, charcoal, and ash appears in ceremonies at every age. Boys decorate their chests and arms before their coming-of-age initiations. Men may decorate their arms, legs, and torsos in great detail before large funerals or long marches. Women honor Dreamtime stories by painting communal symbols and colors on their breasts, arms, and thighs in a joyous awelye ceremony.

Ta moko (somewhat similar to tattooing) is the application of permanent colored skin markings. Both men and women may have ta moko, with the patterns revealing details about the wearer's family and tribal affiliations, their social standing, and even future roles. Ta moko may be on one’s chest, limbs, or face, though women’s facial ta moko is usually limited to the lip area or below.


The First Peoples of Australia
Long, hollowed-wood trumpets played with continuous vibration and circular breathing have been part of the culture for at least 1,500 years. Commonly known by the made-up word didgeridoo, the instrument is emblematic of indigenous life.

Haka refers to an array of percussive Maori dances featuring foot-stomping, thigh-slapping, and hand clapping. Performed first by women and then adapted by men as a war ritual, it’s part of both ceremonial and casual events: New Zealand’s premiere rugby team performs it before every game.


For all their differences, each of the two cultures have an oft-quoted proverb that says just about the same thing, a reminder that—even for the most ancient groups—the world we all share will always endure longer.

The First Peoples of Australia
We are all visitors to this time, this place. We are just passing through.

As man disappears from sight, the land remains …


Take a side-by-side look at Aboriginal and Maori culture

The Great Barrier Reef

A closer look at the world’s largest living thing

by Pavi Kulatunga

Stretching an astounding 1,600 miles, the Great Barrier Reef is not only the largest coral reef in the world, but it’s also the planet’s largest collective organism—and the only living thing on Earth that is visible from space. Renowned for its beauty as much as for the diversity of marine life it supports, the reef’s truly massive size belies an incredibly delicate ecosystem that is increasingly at risk from predators, pollution, sediments, and severe weather.

Coral reefs, such as those found along the Great Barrier Reef, are composed of millions of soft-bodied invertebrate animals called coral polyps. The polyps, which stick together with energy-rich algae (called zooxanthellae), protect themselves by producing rigid shells of lime. The vibrant pigmentations of the algae lend the shells their stunning hues.

As the polyps die, their shells, or “skeletons,” remain. New polyps then attach themselves to the remnants and continue the cycle. The resulting labyrinth of structures becomes a harbor of marine life, hosting more animal species than any other marine ecosystem in the world. More than 1,500 different species of fish alone can be spotted living in and around the coral of the Great Barrier Reef. Likewise, more than 400 different species of coral polyps exist in the Great Barrier Reef—a number that is nearly ten times the amount found in the entire Atlantic Ocean.

Polyp procreation

The reproduction methods of polyps vary greatly from species to species. Some are hermaphrodites, and produce both sperm and eggs. Other corals are gonochoric, meaning they produce single-sex colonies where all of the polyps in one colony produce only sperm, and all of the polyps in another colony produce only eggs.

But perhaps the grandest method of reproduction takes place during coral spawning—a synchronized ejecting of large quantities of eggs and sperm into the surrounding water. During such events, it’s not uncommon for trillions of eggs and sperm to be released on the same night.

Location, location, location

Owing much to its location, the Great Barrier Reef resides in the Coral Sea just off the coast of Queensland, Australia, on the eastern edge of the continental shelf. This unique location, more than any other factor, is the reason the reef has thrived. Here, an abundant supply of shallow, clear water allows sunlight to easily penetrate and keep water temperatures at a constant 68–90° Fahrenheit. These conditions are especially ideal for the algae, which need sunlight to make the coral’s main diet of sugary nutrients.

A sinking feeling...

Many fish species feed on coral, including the parrotfish, butterfly fish, and tangs, as well as certain marine snails and marine slugs. However, coral’s most dangerous predator is the crown-of-thorns starfish. In 2000, an outbreak of the starfish descended upon the reef and decimated a large population of coral. It was estimated that over 60% of the reef’s living polyps were lost during this feeding frenzy.

A far more dangerous threat facing the Great Barrier Reef is the ever increasing temperatures of the Coral Sea. Since the mid-1980s, increased water temperatures have bleached large portions of coral in the Great Barrier Reef. This bleaching puts severe stress on the coral and, in many cases, leads to coral death, greatly impacting the ecosystem.

Oceanographers and environmental scientists are deeply concerned about the bleaching occurring at the reef. Recently, in an effort to reverse the steady advance towards extinction, scientists have turned to cryogenics—freezing sizeable quantities of coral polyp eggs and sperm—in the event that the reef can’t be saved.

It is difficult to imagine something so large vanishing, but like a sunken constellation whose stars are burning out, the Great Barrier Reef is facing some difficult days ahead. For now, at least, the colorful majesty of the world’s largest living thing is available to all who venture to see it.

A closer look at the world’s largest living thing

40,000 Years and Counting

The cultural history of Australia’s Aborigines

by Pavi Kulatunga

At the heart of Aboriginal culture is ‘Dreamtime,’ a complex network of spiritual beliefs ...

The 1974 discovery of skeletal remains in Lake Mungo—a dry lake in the Australian state of New South Wales—revolutionized the world’s understanding of Australia’s indigenous community. Testing revealed that “Mungo Man,” as the skeleton was known, was an Aboriginal ancestor who had died between 40,000 and 60,000 years previously—a remarkable time frame that proved, scientifically, that Australia’s Aborigines possess the world’s longest continuous cultural history.

Australia’s indigenous communities agree, but their reference point is spiritual, not scientific. As they see it, they’ve been inhabiting the Earth since time began—a belief reflected in the name by which these groups are known: Aborigine, derived from the Latin ab origine, means “from the beginning.”

A blanket term, “Aborigine” obscures the fact that Australia’s indigenous community is not a single, cohesive entity. Indeed, when British settlers stepped ashore in 1789, there were an estimated 350 to 750 distinct tribal groups, each with its own name, language, social customs, and traditional methods of subsistence. (Today, there are fewer than 200.)

Where spirituality and culture interweave

While each Aboriginal group has its own clan-specific rituals, there are overwhelming similarities between their core spiritual and cultural philosophies. These powerful, shared beliefs help explain why these seemingly disparate groups have been able to successfully preserve their traditions for more than 40,000 years.

At the heart of Aboriginal culture is “Dreamtime,” a complex network of spiritual beliefs in which the past, present, and future exist simultaneously. Essentially a creation mythology, Dreamtime describes how dormant spirit-ancestors living within the earth suddenly awakened and, assuming half-human, half-animal forms, gave shape to the planet, creating mountains, valleys, deserts, rivers, and forests. When their work was done, these spirits crept back inside the earth, where they remain today.

For Aborigines, then, the land is truly sacred. Australia’s mountains and rivers aren’t simply reminders of their history, but physical manifestations of the spirit-ancestors who dwell inside—making the entire continent one vast sanctuary. Yet, these culturally significant locations are largely unknown outside of the communities in whose Dreamtime lore they feature. Of the relatively few acknowledged Aboriginal sites, perhaps the best known is Uluru, or Ayers Rock, the iconic sandstone monolith that rises more than 1,200 feet from the flat desert floor of the Outback.

The legacy of Dreamtime

Instead of a written record, Aborigines have relied on oral traditions to pass along and preserve Dreamtime stories. Each group performs corroborees, or ceremonies—including initiation and bereavement rituals—to maintain its history.

Dreamtime stories are also expressed through art, particularly rock paintings and petroglyphs. The images—rendered in red ochre, white kaolin, and charcoal—typically reflect the sacred totems specific to each Aboriginal group. Some etchings, however, depict Aboriginal hunters and their prey, like goanna lizards and wallabies. While the purpose and significance of such artwork is largely unknown to outsiders, one theory is that they served as backdrops for corroborees.

In the 1970s, a new style of Aboriginal painting known as “dot art” emerged. As with rock paintings and petroglyphs, these paintings focus on the natural world, showcasing Dreamtime animals and landscapes. However, unlike earlier styles, dot art features vibrant colors and abstract designs, which are used to mask sacred images and ensure that Dreamtime secrets are not revealed. The style, similar to pointillism, involves the artist painstakingly covering a canvas with uniformly sized dots—a process generally achieved by using wooden sticks or, more traditionally, echidna quills.

Dot art paintings have become extremely popular—not only in Australia, but also in the international community. Indeed, Time magazine’s renowned art critic, Robert Hughes, declared it “the last great art movement of the 20th century.” Today, dot art paintings are displayed in museums and high-end galleries throughout the world—ensuring that the culture and history of Australia’s Aborigines will endure.  

The cultural history of Australia’s Aborigines

True Australian Barbecue

Grilled lamb chops with Shiraz reduction

from Harriet's Corner

Considered by many as the national dish of Australia, lamb has a strong presence on the menus and dinner tables of local restaurants and households across the continent. Grilled lamb chops with Shiraz reduction is an easy-to-make dish that highlights its fresh and savory ingredients, such as lime, garlic, and red wine—while taking very little time to cook. Whether you’ve already been to the land "Down Under", or want a taste of what you can expect, this dish will transport you straight to the heart of Oz.


Lamb chops:

8 Australian lamb chops
¾ cup olive oil
1 Tbsp lime zest
2 Tbsp lime juice
¼ cup finely chopped mint
½ tsp salt
½ tsp pepper

Shiraz reduction:

2 Tbsp unsalted butter
1 cup thinly sliced onions
1 Tbsp finely chopped garlic
3 cups Shiraz wine
Salt and pepper, to taste


  1. In a shallow dish, combine olive oil, lime zest and juice, mint, salt, and pepper. Coat both sides of the lamb chops in the marinade leave for 2 hours at room temperature, or refrigerate overnight.
  2. Melt butter in skillet over medium heat and add garlic and onions to sauté for 8 to 10 minutes, or until golden brown. Stir in wine and season with salt and pepper. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer for 1 hour, or until mixture thickens and reduced to 1 cup. The sauce should have the consistency of syrup.
  3. Grill lamb chops for 3 to 4 minutes per side for medium-rare, or until desired temperature. Spoon Shiraz reduction over the chops and serve.

Serves: 4

Grilled lamb chops with Shiraz reduction

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